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Question:–Explain various dimensions of development. Discuss the role of family, teacher and media in growth and development of a child?
Various dimensions of child development refers to the way a child grows and learns. There are four dimensions of child development:
- Physical Development – The development and growth of the child’s body, muscles, and senses.In infancy, a baby develops extremely rapidly in various ways. Babies use their senses to learn to interact with the environment around them and their bodies grow stronger and mature. One way babies learn to use their bodies is by learning to achieve large physical tasks, or gross motor skills, such as crawling and walking.
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- An infant goes through a series of physical milestones that build off each other to help him learn successively more difficult and complex actions. Typically, the development of major physical skills follows a pattern that starts with holding up the head, leads to rolling over, sitting up, crawling and standing and finally culminates in walking. Lifting of the head and pushing up on his arms develop during months 2 to 3 of a baby’s life. Rolling over occurs around month 4, and by month 6, most babies can sit up unassisted. Crawling occurs between months 7 and 10, and sometime after 10 months, a baby will learn to stand and take his first steps. Just after birth,
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- a baby has little to no control over his neck muscles.Before any other physical skills can be mastered, he must learn to lift and hold up his head. Arm and leg development often come naturally to a baby as he stretches and pushes with his limbs. Fine motor skills are just as important as the large muscle development that babies go through. Infants often can first grasp a toy at around 4 to 5 months of age. Between 9 and 12 months, the infant’s pincer grasp develops, which is the ability to hold something between his first two fingers instead of just with his whole hand. In the second year of life, toddlers continue to become more mobile and more agile. Around 15 months, babies begin to climb stairs, high chairs, and furniture, but they will not yet be able to get back down once they reach the top. By 18 months, toddlers’ balance becomes more stable as they can move more easily on their feet around objects and begin walking backwards, sideways, in circles, and even running. Near the end of their second year, toddlers begin to develop complex gross motor skills such as throwing objects for distance and kicking. By 24 months, they can jump in place and balance they can jump in place and balance on one foot for a short period and may begin peddling their first tricycle. At the end of the second year, toddlers are very mobile and can run and walk quickly from one place to another.
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- Social Development – how the child relates, plays and talks to others. A child is born in a social environment where his/her personality development is shaped in accordance with the norm of the society:
(a) The sense of trust and mistrust develops in children themselves and
(b) The feeling of autonomy develops in children. They begin to explore
their environment independently.
(c) The social environment expands beyond home.
(d) Children of both sexes play together without any discrimination. They actively participate in group, games in which physical energy is used such as hide and seek.
(e) They learn to cooperate with others and make friends on shared interests
and similar personality traits.
(f) Children take interest in fairy tales and animal stories.
- Emotional Development- the child’s awareness of self, how the child feels about himself, expression of feelings and how he helps care for himself. Emotions play an important role in life and contribute in the personal and social adjustment of the individual provided they are directed into wholesome expression. Emotions have the following effects on the developing individual:
a) Emotions give us energy to face a particular situation in life.
b) They work as motivators of our behaviour.
c) Emotions add pleasure to everyday experiences in life.
e) They influence adjustment in the society.
f) Highly emotional conditions disturb mental equilibrium; reasoning and
thinking are disrupted.
g) Emotions serve as a media of communication between individuals and
guide the individual to modify in order to conform to the social
h) Emotional deprivation leads to personality maladjustment.
- Cognitive Development- the way children think, reason, solve problems, and understand and use language.Babies are not only growing physically during the first 2 years of life, but also
cognitively (mentally). While physical growth and change is easily observed and measured in precise terms such as in inches and pounds, cognitive change and development is a little harder to determine as clearly. Therefore, much about what experts know about mental and cognitive development is based on the careful observation of developmental theorists and their theories, such as Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and Erickson’s psychosocial stages. According
to Piaget, newborns interact with their environment entirely through reflexive
behaviours. They do not think about what they’re going to do, but rather follow their instincts and involuntary reactions to get what they need: food, air, and attention. Piaget believed that as babies begin to grow and learn about their environment through their senses, they begin to engage in intentional, goal-
directed behaviors. In other words, they begin to think about what they want to
accomplish, how to accomplish it, and then they do it. This is also when infants
develop object permanence, which is the ability to understand that something
still exists even if it can’t be seen. These two milestones, goal-directed behaviour
and object permanence, are the highlights and major accomplishments of infant cognitive development.
Role of Teachers, Family and media in Child Development:-
Role of Family:–
The proper role of the parent is to provide encouragement, support, and access to activities that enable the child to master key developmental tasks. A parent is their child’s first teacher and should remain their best teacher throughout life.
Role of Teachers:-
In every interaction, a teacher should nurture appropriate growth and development. including interpreting words and actions. Listening carefully helps teachers determines a child’s needs and aids in furthering the child’s development.Teaching is full of many responsibilities, roles, and challenges.
Role of Media:-
The media plays a large role in the education and socialisation process.There is need to both use and monitor television and other media to ensure the maximum benefit to children.